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Main heading: The Music of Gustav Mahler: A Catalogue of Manuscript and Printed Sources [rule] Paul Banks

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Index to this page

 

Title

 

Date

 

Movements

 

Dedication

 

Texts

 

Scoring

 

Duration

 

Manuscripts

 

Printed editions

 

Performance History

 

Chronology

 

Notes

 
 

Dedication

 
 

Related Work

 
 

Critical Edition

 

Supplementary material

     
     

 

 1

See GMNUB, 52–65 (this includes an extended introduction and transcriptions of Mahler's correspondence with the Poisl family) and HLG1, 62–7. However, both include the assertion (probably originating with Justine) that Julius was twenty years older than than his bride. Since Josephine was born, like Mahler, in 1860, this was evidently an exaggeration. 

 

2

Julius Wallner, 'Beiträge zur Geschichte der Laibacher Maler und Bildhauer in XVII. und XVIII. Jahrhunderts', Mittheilungen des Musealvereines für Krain, 3 (1890), 103–39.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lieder für Tenorstimme

 

Title

  5 Lieder für Tenorstimme

Date

  Im Lenz: 19 Februar 1880; Winterlied: 27 Februar 1880; Maitanz im Grünen: 5 März 1880

Movements

  The voice ranges at notated pitch use Helmholtz notation and show pitches for which Mahler provides an ossia in parentheses; the timings are derived from PFMD2.
 
         
    Key Range Duration
         

1.

Im Lenz

C major–DGraphic symbol representing a flat signv

e'–a" (b", c''')

2:23–2:31

2.

Winterlied

A major–F major

eGraphic symbol representing a flat sign'–bGraphic symbol representing a flat sign"

3:17–4:03

3.

Maitanz im Grünen

D major

a–a"

c. 2.30

4.

[See the notes below]

     

5.

[See the notes below]

     

Dedication

  Josephinen zueiggnet

Texts

  The manuscript contains no attributions for the texts, which were probably by the composer

Scoring

  Tenor and Piano

Manuscripts

  Autograph fair copy (CDN-Lu Mahler-Rosé Collection, OS-MD-684)

Printed Editions

  First published in SWXIII/5 (1990; see below)
Performance history
 

The first confirmed performance of the three completed songs appears to have been broadcast in Radio Brünn on 30 September 1934; they were sung by Zdeněk Knittl, accompanied by Alfred Rosé (DM1, 119).

Chronology
 
1880.02.19 ‘Im Lenz’ completed
1880.02.27 ‘Winterlied’ completed

1880.03.05

‘Maitanz im Grünen’ completed; Mahler sent a copy of Vergessene Liebe to Anton Krisper

1880.03.18 Mahler may have sent copies of the three completed songs to Josephine Poisl in anticipation of the first day of Spring (21 March) (GMNUB, 59)

1880.03.21

Short score of Der Spielmann (incorporating part of ‘Im Lenz’) completed

1886.04.19 A revised version of ‘Maitanz im Grünen’ performed as ‘Hans und Grete’ in Prague

1888

Motives from ‘Maitanz im Grünen’ incorporated into the scherzo of the First Symphony

1892

‘Hans und Grete’ published by Schott in volume 1 of the Lieder und Gesänge

Notes

 

Dedication

The dedicatee of these songs - named simply ‘Josephine' on the title page - was first identified in 1921 in an article by Dr Rudolf Stephan Hoffmann (RSHUJM). As he makes clear, he was given access to the manuscript of the collection by its owner, Frau Justine Rosé, Mahler's sister, and it appears that in thanks for this he sent her a proof copy of the article (CDN-Lu Mahler-Rose Collection OS-MD-698).  It was presumably Justine who provided the little information he was able to divulge about 'Josephine':

[Die drei Lieder] verdankt ihr Enstehen einer Jugendleidenschaft für die, der die Widmung galt. Es war ein Fräulein Josephine Poisl, von der ich nichts weiter weiß, als daß sie die Tochter des Beamten, der damals in Iglau dem Postamt vorstand, daß sie später geheiratet hat, und „schon lang in der Ferne weilt”, aus der es keine Wiederkeht gibt. 

The three songs owe their existence to a youthful passion for the recipient of the dedication. This was a Miss Josephine Poisl, of who I know nothing beyond the fact that she was the daughter of an official who at that time worked at the Post Office in Iglau, that she later married, and 'for some time has wandered in the distance place', from which there is no return.

For Mahler, at least, the love affair was serious and he kept a collection of letters and other documents connected with it for the rest of his life. He had taught the sisters Josefa and Anna Poisl piano in the summer of 1879, and from this his infatuation grew.

However, Frl. Poisl's father did not consider Mahler a suitable suitor for his daughter, and in June wrote to Mahler forbidding him to write to her. Shortly afterwards she married Julius Wallner (born c. 1851),¹ a teacher at the Staatsgymnasium in Iglau, who went on to have a successful professional career. By the late 1880s he had moved to Laibach where he was professor at the Obergymnasium until the announcement on 13 July 1894 that he would return to Iglau to take over as Director of the Staatsgymnasium; five years later a further promotion beckoned when, in September 1899 he was appointed Director of the German-language Gymnasium in Brünn. Wallner retired in 1906 and was awarded the title of Regierungsrat. Alongside his professional work Wallner was also an amateur historian who undertook research in a number of areas, including the early history of education in Iglau and 17th and 18th-century painters and sculptors in Laibach.² From 1887/8 he was for many years a corresponding member of the Centralkommission für Kunst- und historische Denkmale and prepared at least two reports on archives and monastic buildings in Croatia published by the Commission. After his retirement Wallner moved to Graz and died there, in his 63rd year, on 18 March 1914. Unfortunately recent research has not shed any further light on Josephine herself, or established the date of her death. However there is some evidence that might offer clues about her later life. In August 1896 Julius and his (unnamed) wife registered at guests at the Gasthof zum Wilden Mann at Bad Ischl, an indication that they had achieved at least modest middle-class affluence; at the time Mahler was 22 kilometres away, at Steinbach am Attersee where he had completed the draft of the Third Symphony earlier in the summer. Six years later, in August 1902, Wallner again stayed in Ischl, this time at the Hôtel dem schwarzen Adler, but not with his wife, only his son. There could be have been many reasons for Josephine's absence, but, particularly in light of Hoffmann's reference, it seems possible that she had died in the intervening period.

Franz Willnauer's suggestion that the Frühlingsboten (Spring greetings) that Mahler told Josephine he was sending her in a letter dated 18 March 1880, were in fact the three completed songs of the collection, is not wholly implausible. However, if the sole surviving manuscript was that gift,  how did it end up in Justine's possession? If it was not, then there must have been another autograph manuscript.

Jeremy Barham has conjectured that the two other poems Mahler appears to have written in early 1880 – Vergessene Liebe and „Kam ein Sonnenstrahl‟ (see HLG1, 824–26 and the transcriptions included with the texts of the first three songs) were intended for the projected fourth and fifth songs that were never composed because of the abrupt ending of his relationship with Josephine (JBJE, 56).

Vocal Range

Taken together the songs demand a tenor with a wide compass: (at sounding pitch) from A ('Maitanz im Grünen') to bGraphic: flat sign' ('Winterlied') or c'' if the ossia is taken in 'Im Lenz'.

Related Work

‘Im Lenz’ shares an extended passage with Das klagende Lied: bb. 14–27 of the song make their first appearance (a fifth lower in pitch) in bb. 302–14 (1880)/bb. 294–307 (1902) of Der Spielmann, and is heard again in bb. 202–207 (1880)/bb. 200–205 (1902) of Hochzeitsstück.

 

Music example showing bars 13 to 27

music example showing bars 294-307 of Das klagende Lied: Der Spielmann

music example showing bars 294-307 of Das klagende Lied: Der Speilmann

Fig. 1a

Im Lenz, bb. 13–27

Fig. 1b

Das klagende Lied: Der Spielmann (PV1, 1902), bb. 294–307

The autograph short score of this movement (Das klagende Lied, SS2)  is dated 21 March 1880, so it seems likely that the passage was first conceived in the context of the song.

The last completed song, 'Maitanz im Grünen', was subsequently transposed upwards and revised to become 'Hans und Grete', the third song in volume I of the Lieder und Gesänge, published in 1892. Because the original song had an usually wide vocal range – A-a' (sounding pitch) – Mahler had to modify the higher passages when transposing the song.

Critical Edition

SWXIII/5: Gustav Mahler, Verscheidene Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Klavier, Sämtliche Werke, Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Band XIII Teilband 5, ed. Zoltan Roman ([S.l.]: Schott, 1990)

Select Bibliography

  PRML, 49–51; JBJE, 56–8
   
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