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Main heading: The Music of Gustav Mahler: A Catalogue of Manuscript and Printed Sources [rule] Paul Banks





Instrumental Works


Vocal Works


Unfinished Works


Lost and Spurious Works






Mahler's Publishers




Using the Catalogue


Conventions & Abbreviations




Index of Works


Site Map












Index to this page






List of songs












Printed editions


Performance History






Dates of composition








Related works


Critical Edition


Supplementary material

1 At present it is not entirely clear in which key the song was originally composed.  









































































Lieder und Gesänge



  Lieder und Gesänge



For composition dates (or possible date-ranges) of individual songs, see the list of songs and also the notes at the end of this page.



The following list includes the keys used for the published high and low voice versions (those in bold are the keys in which the songs were composed) the vocal ranges at notated pitch using Helmholtz notation (pitches in parentheses are  provided with ossias as indicated), dates, and durations derived from PFMD2 (those in parentheses are of the recording made by Desi Halban (the daughter of Selma Kurz) and Bruno Walter in 1947).



Volume I

Key (high/low) Range Date Duration (Walter)
1.  Frühlingsmorgen G major[1]


by 1886 1:25–2:37 (1:25)
    F major c'–f"    
2. Erinnerung G minor–A minor d'–g"(a") by 1889 2:07–3:42 (2:20)
    F minor–G minor c'–f"(g")    
3. Hans und Grete F major c'–f"(c''') 1880–86 1:39–2:53 (1:39)
    E major b–e"(b")    
4. Serenade aus Don Juan von Tirso de Molina D major e'–g" 1887 1:242:02
    C major d'–f"    
5. Phantasie aus Don Juan von Tirso de Molina B minor b–f" 1887 2:02–3:02
    B minor b–f"    
Volume II        
1. Um schlimme Kinder artig zu machen E major (b)e'–g" by 1891 1:37–2:21
    D major (a)d'–f"    
2. Ich ging mit Lust durch einem grünen Wald D major (a)d'–g" by 1891 3:02–5:25 (3:06)
    C major (g)c'–f"    
3. Aus! Aus! E major e'–g"(a") by 1891 1:42–2:48
    C major c'–e"(f")    
4. Starke Einbildungskraft C major g'–g" by 1891 0:53–1:42 (0:58)
    A major e'–e"    
Volume III        
1. Zu Strassburg auf der Schanz G minor b–g"(a") by 1891 2:44–4:50
    F minor a–f"(g")    
2. Ablösung im Sommer B minor f'–g" by 1891 1:13–2:13 (1:13)
    A minor e'–f"    
3. Scheiden und Meiden G major d'–a" by 1889 2:08–3:20 (2:12)
    F major c'–g"    
4. Nicht Wiedersehen! C minor b'–g" by 1891 3:01–5:43
    B minor a–f"    
5. Selbstgefühl G major (a)d'–g"(a") by 1891 1:25–2:21
    F major (g)c'–f''(g'')    





The texts are from a number of sources: Des Knaben Wunderhorn, Richard Leander (pseud. of Richard von Volkmann (1830–1899)), Tirso de Molina (pseud.: Gabriel Tellez (1571–1648)), and Gustav Mahler (or possibly Ernst Gettke); see also the notes on the texts below.


  High or low voice and piano



See the contents list above: the timings are derived from PFMD2.


  Autograph piano-vocal scores, individual songs Autograph full score (Vol. III, no. 1, unfinished)
  Autograph piano-vocal scores, collections  
  Copyists' manuscripts with autograph annotations  

Printed Editions

  Collective volumes Individual songs
Performance history
  Performances 1886-1911
  Selected Recordings 1905-1947
1880.03.05 'Maitanz im Grünen' (early version of 'Hans und Grete') completed as the third of the 5. Lieder für Tenorstimme (AV)
1886.04.19 'Frühlingsmorgen' (I/1) and ‘Hans und Grete’ (I/3) were performed by Betty Frank, accompanied by Mahler, in Prague; the latter was encored (Martner2 , no. 29)
1887.09.20 First performance of the adaptation of Tirso de Molina's Don Juan, der Verführer von Sevilla oder der steinerne Gast by Ernst Gettke at the Vereinigtes Stadttheater, Leipzig
1889.11.13 'Frühlingsmorgen' (I/1), 'Erinnerung' (I/2) and 'Scheiden und Meiden' (III/3) performed in Budapest
1891.10.14 Mahler wrote to Ludwig Strecker to ask whether Schott's might publish some of his music, referring to 'about 20 assorted songs' (FWGMV, 80–1)
1891.11.03 Mahler accepted Strecker's offer to publish some of the songs, and requested the return of his manuscript so that copies could be prepared to act as printer's copies (FWGMV, 82–3)
1891.11.09 Mahler posted the new copies (ACV) to Strecker (FWGMV, 83–4)
1891.11.13 A publishing contract was prepared and signed on behalf of Schott's
1891.11.19 Mahler requested clarification of 'Einnahme' in the contract he had just received from Strecker (FWGMV, 85)
1891.11.21 As advised by Strecker, Mahler made a modification in the contract before signing and dating it.
1891.11.24 Mahler returned the amended contract to Strecker (FWGMV, 87)
1891.12 While in Vienna c.6–14 December Mahler left the Schott contract with Justine for safe keeping (GMLJE, 153)
1891.12.23 Mahler had returned three sets of music proofs (APVpr) to Brandstetter in Leipzig and requested proofs of the title page (FWGMV, 88)
1892.01.12 Strecker replied, explaining the delays and why he was not in favour of off-prints of individual songs until after the first edition had sold out (FWGMV, 89–90)
1892.02.02 Mahler wrote to Strecker, asking whether the songs had been published as the title page had been finished for weeks (FWGMV, 91)
1892.02.08 A review of the collection by August Beer published in Pester Lloyd (ZRGMH, 153)
1892.02.11 Mahler wrote to Strecker acknowledging receipt of his copies of the first edition of the songs, and discussing their promotion (FWGMV, 92–3)
1893.03 Publication of the six volumes announced in the Hofmeister's Monatsbericht.
1892.04.29 'Nicht Wiedersehen' (III/4) and 'Aus! Aus!' (II/3) performed in Hamburg by Richard Dannenberg and Carl Armbrust
1892.10.26 Mahler wrote to Strecker to acknowledge receipt of 95 Mk 80 Pf., his first royalty payment.
1893.09 Mahler received 120 Mk as a royalty payment for the Lieder und Gesänge, 300 copies of which had been sold 'recently' (presumably since September 1892) (GMLJE, 241).
1905.11.09 Mahler recorded a piano solo version of 'Ich ging mit Lust durch einem grünem Wald' on a piano roll (issued as no. 768) at the Welte Company in Leipzig. (Fölöp, J.3510)
1913.05 First issue of the collection by Universal Edition under licence ('In die Universal-Edition aufgenommen')



Dates of Composition

Only one dated autograph - for the early version of 'Hans und Grete' - survives, so all other suggestions of composition dates are necessarily conjectural:

Volume I

'Frühlingsmorgen': terminus ante quem: first documented public performance, 19.04.1886

'Erinnerung': terminus ante quem: first documented public performance, 13.11.1889

'Hans und Grete': 5 March 1880

'Serenade', 'Phantasie': terminus ante quem perhaps 20 October 1887 (see below)

Volume III

'Scheiden und Meiden': terminus ante quem: first documented public performance, 13 November 1889

According to Bauer-Lechner and (see SHNSS, 52) Mahler recalled that he had first came to know Des Knaben Wunderhorn in his twenty-eighth year (i.e. June 1887–88: he made a similar comment to Richard Specht (RSpGM1, 18)) and that at least some of the Wunderhorn settings were composed with the children of Max and Marion von Weber in mind, which would also date them to 1887–8 (NBL2, 29; NBLE, 334). Clearly at least two of the songs included in volume I  were composed earlier (Frühlingsmorgen, and Hans und Grete) and at least one unidentified Wunderhorn setting was composed in June 1890 while Mahler was staying at Hinterbrühl with the Löhr family (. In the summer of 1891 Mahler undertook a long vacation trip that probably prevented any composition, and in October of the year he wrote to Ludwig Strecker of B. Schott's Söhne offering for publication, amongs other items, 'about 20 assorted songs' (FWGMV, 81) and it was presumably in connection with this approach that he prepared fair copies (see  AVc).


Frühlingsmorgen, Erinnerung

These two texts are by Richard von Volkmann (1830–1899), a distinguished surgeon and advocate of antiseptic surgery in Germany, who wrote poetry and fiction under the name 'Richard Leander'. They were published in his Gedichte (3rd ed., Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1885) where they appear as the ninth and nineteenth poems in a group of 20 Kleiner Lieder dated '1850-52'.

Serenade, Phantasie

The play by Tirso de Molina, Don Juan, der Verführer von Sevilla oder der steinerne Gast, from which the texts of these two songs are derived, was revived in 1887 by a number of European theatres to mark the 100th anniversary of the first performance of Mozart's Don Giovanni. The Vereinigtes Stadt-Theater in Leipzig, where Mahler was conductor, was one of these, and according to the Berliner Börsenzeitung (4 October 1887) the performing version was adapted from the translation by Ludwig Braunfels (also used by Mahler in his settings) by the Oberregisseur, Ernst Gettke (1841–1912) and involved numerous scenic and textual changes; if Mahler's settings were connected with the production, which seems probable, it is possible that the second stanza of Phantasie was written by Gettke.

black and white photo of Ernst Gettke (c. 1902)

Fig. 1. Ernst Gettke

Des Knaben Wunderhorn

For a detailed discussion of Mahler's use of Wunderhorn texts  (and a valuable discussion of the creative evolution of 'Hans und Grete' (I, 3)), see RHVIW.

Transposition and vocal range

The earliest complete manuscript of the set of songs is the undated fair copy compiled by Mahler, AVc.


These songs were the first works by Mahler to appear in print under his name alone. On 14 October 1891 Mahler wrote to the Ludwig Strecker to enquire whether, as owner of B. Schott's Söhne, he would be interested in considering some of Mahler's music for publication, in particular the songs (FWGMV, 81). Strecker must have given a encouraging response, and by 9 November Mahler had sent to Mainz the manuscript copies that were to be used in the engraving of the Lieder und Gesänge and from those that survive it seems that Mahler himself may have decided on the published ordering. The first edition eventually appeared in February 1892 (in both high- and low-voice versions) and was reprinted on a number of occasions. For further details, see the chronology above, the account of Mahler's relationship with Schott, and the descriptions of the published editions.

It was Guido Adler (GA, 98) who misdated the publication of volume I to 1885, an error that survives in several library catalogues; ERGA, 121 silently corrects this and other mistakes in the entry for the work.

Critical Edition

Volume I, songs 1–5

SWXIII/5: Gustav Mahler, Verschiedene Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Klavier, Sämtliche Werke, Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Band XIII, Teilband 5, ed. Zoltan Roman ([Mainz]: Schott, 1990)

Because of tightly drawn editorial criteria, this edition omits some transposed versions – No. 1 (high voice, G major), No. 2 (low voice, F minor–G minor), No. 3  (low voice, E major), No. 5 (low voice, B minor) – for which no autograph or printer's copy has been located, despite the fact that there is strong evidence that Mahler wished all the songs to be available in high- and low-voice versions and would have supplied new copyist's scores for all the songs, specified on them the keys for the printed high and low voice versions, and would presumably have proof-read both before publication.

On the other hand, in the case of No. 4 the autograph (AVc) and the printer's copy (ACV1.4) are both in D but SWXIII/5 only prints the song in the transpositions requested by Mahler, C major and D major.

Volume II, songs 1–4; volume III, songs 1–5 (high voice)

SWXIII/2ah: Gustav Mahler, Neun Lieder u Gesänge aus „Des Knaben Wunderhorn” für eine Singstimme (hoch) mit Klavier, Band XIII, Teilband 2ah, ed. Peter Revers ([Mainz]: Schott, 1991)

Volume II, songs 1–4; volume III, songs 1–5 (low voice)

SWXIII/2at: Gustav Mahler, Neun Lieder u Gesänge aus „Des Knaben Wunderhorn” für eine Singstimme mit Klavier (tief), Band XIII, Teilband 2at, ed. Peter Revers ([Mainz]: Schott, 1991)


Supplementary Material

  Conjectural outline stemma for volume I

Conjectural outline stemma for volume II

Conjectural outline stemma for volume III

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© 2007-14 Paul Banks  |  This page was lasted edited on 06 June 2017